PhD: Liverpool University and Port Erin Marine Station, Isle of Man. Thesis: ‘Studies on the Polychaeta of the Isle of Man’ (1955). Honorary Doctor of Science, (1991) Christian Albrecht University, Kiel, Germany.
My interests have been taxonomy and biology of pogonophoran tube-worms and the related large vestimentiferans; Bivalve molluscs with symbiotic autotrophic chemosynthetic bacteria; Hydrothermal vents; Echinoderms of the British Isles; Barnacles: geographical distribution of Chthamalus species. Identification keys for planktonic barnacle larvae (in press 2017) and the 50-yr ecological consequences of the 1967 “Torrey Canyon” oil-spill and clean-up on Cornish rocky seashores.
Deep-Sea investigations: An early cruise of the MBA’s new RV ‘Sarsia’ dredged up some ‘fibres’ (1957-58) which were actually narrow tubes holding live red worms. These proved to be the first pogonophorans (gutless tube-worms) to be described from the North Atlantic. A regular series of MBA ‘dredging cruises’ continued from the 1950’s to 1988, first using the ‘Sarsia’, and later RV ‘Sir Frederick Russell’ to study the benthic fauna of the continental slope of the Bay of Biscay and Western Approaches. In 1979, international interest was aroused by the discovery of the remarkable chemosynthetic fauna of hydrothermal vents (hot springs in the ocean floor). Following this, I participated in various hydrothermal vent cruises using manned submersibles and remote vehicles.