This large-scale field-based project will examine the structure and functioning of UK kelp forests along existing natural gradients in temperature, wave exposure and turbidity. The project employs scientific diving as a tool to access highly productive and diverse kelp forests on shallow subtidal rocky reefs. Through a combination of surveys and manipulative experiments, the project will examine how primary productivity, biodiversity and resilience to disturbance are influenced by temperature, light availability and wave action. The project is part-funded by the NERC Facility for Scientific Diving Steering Committee.