Abdul re-joined the MBA in 2007 and is working in various projects focusing on the cell biology of diatoms and coccolithophores, two of the most significant groups of phytoplankton with respect to ocean primary productivity and marine biogeochemical cycles. He is working under the supervision of Dr Glen Wheeler and Professor Colin Brownlee. Abdul has expertise in various electrophysiological and anatomical techniques which include: morphological identification of cells through retrograde labelling with a variety of fluorescent dyes such as Lucifer yellow, cascade blue, DIO and DII. morphological identification of single neurones using fluorescent dyes and/or Neurobiotin. immunohistochemical identification of cells using polyclonal antibodies. brain slices preparation from cephalopods such as octopus and cuttlefish. mechanical and enzymatic dissociation of cells for cell cultures. extracellular and intracellular recordings from neurons (using sharp electrodes) to monitor activity and identify the neuronal type. patch-clamp recordings from cells to characterize and study the membrane channels and to study the effects of various neurotransmitters and neuromodulators; using both freshly isolated and cultured cells as well as in slice preparations. patch-clamp recordings to analyse and study the modulation using different putative neurotransmitters of both spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents as well as evoked events in the newly developed brain slice preparations. monitoring changes in intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i in a variety of cell preparations using fluorescent indicator dyes with the use of a photomultiplier. confocal microscopy to monitor intracellular pH [pH]i using the pH indicators BCECF and SNARF. ion-selective microelectrodes to monitor the microenvironment around a various diatoms and coccolithophores.