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Citing print sources of information

 

Arrow Printable word version

This is a basic guide on how to cite various print publications. The examples are based on the Harvard referencing system (author surname, date). All references should include the elements and punctuation given in the examples below. The title of the publication should either be in italics or underlined. The examples given are in italics. As different formats are required by different journals/publishers you should always check the "instructions for authors" when arranging references for publication. 

The EndNote reference management system is a good means of systematically formatting references in a particular journal style, click here for more information on EndNote. ISO journal abbreviations are listed in the Journal Citation Reports.

A book by a single author

Author surname, Initials., Year of publication. Title. Edition if not first. Place of publication: Publisher

Examples:

Jones, D. (1997) An identification guide to the fishes of the north Atlantic. Chichester, John Wiley.

Burns, N. and Grove, S. K. (1997) The North Sea. 3rd edition. London, Saunders.

Mares, Penny et al. (1995) Plankton atlas of the Pacific. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.


A book by a corporate author (eg a government department or other organisation)

Organisation Name, Year of publication. Title. Edition if not first. Place of publication: Publisher Example:

Food and Agriculture Organisation (1992) Fisheries in south-east Asia. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organisation.

An edited book

Author surname, Initials., (editors/eds) Year of publication. Title. Edition if not first. Place of publication: Publisher

Example:

Basford, L. and Slevin, O. (eds) (1995) Copepods. Edinburgh, Campion.

A chapter in a book

Author surname, Initials., Year of publication. Title of chapter. In Surname, Initials of authors/editors of book (eds if relevant). Title of book. Edition if not first. Place of publication: Publisher

Example:

Wunsch, C. (1988) Eclectic modelling of the North Atlantic. In: Charnock, H. et al. (eds) Tracers in the ocean. London, Edward Arnold. p. 5- 22.

An article in a journal

Author surname, Initials., Year of publication. Title of paper. Title of journal. Volume (issue), page numbers.

Example:

Martien, K. (1993) Defining management units for continuously distributed species. Journal of Cetacean Research & Management, 13(1), 43-5.

An article in a newspaper

Author surname, Initials., Year of publication. Title of paper. Title of newspaper. Day & Month, page numbers.

If there is no author, either the name of the newspaper or anon can be used.

Example:

White, M. (1998) Strange fish found off the Cornish coast. Financial Times, Monday May 18 1998, p.8.

Reference to a map

Originator's Surname, initials, (may be cartographer, surveyor, compiler, editor, copier, maker, engraver, etc.) year of publication. Title, Scale. (should be given normally as a ratio) Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Mason, James, 1832. Map of the countries lying between Spain and India,
1:8,000,000. London: Ordnance Survey.

Reports

Author surname, Initials., Year of publication. Title. Report number Place of publication: Publisher. 

Also mention details of availability if it is difficult to track down.
Where the personal author is not known, use the name of the organisation.

Example:

European Environment Agency (2004) EEA Signals 2004. A European Environment Agency update on selected issues. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 

Conference proceedings

Published conference proceedings with author or editor(s):
Author surname, Initials., Year of publication. Title of Conference Proceedings at location, date.. Place of publication: Publisher

Example:

Banks, S. et al (1998) Sedimentation Processes in Estuaries: Proceedings of the 1998 International Conference held at the University of Hull. Hull, University of Hull.


Paper from published conference proceedings with author or editor(s)

Author surname, Initials., Year of publication. Title of chapter. In Surname, Initials of authors/editors of proceedings (eds if relevant). Title of proceedings. Place of publication: Publisher

Example:

Proctor, P. (1998) Sedimentation in the Thames estuary. In: Banks, S. et al. Sedimentation Processes in Estuaries: Proceedings of the 1998 International Conference held at the University of Hull. Hull, University of Hull. p.3.1 - 3.7.

A thesis or dissertation

Author surname, Initials., Year of publication. Title of thesis. Designation (and type). Name of Institution.

Example:

Stones, M. (1995) Information sources for librarians. Thesis (PhD), University of Sheffield.

A secondary reference

Example:

Fiedler, F. and Chemers, M. (1974) Tropical aquatic plants. Glenview, Illinois, Scott Foresman & Co. Cited in: Douglass, L. M. (1996) Guide to the aquatic plants of the tropical regions. 5th edition. St. Louis, Missouri, Mosby.


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