The Marine Biological Association maintains some of the longest biological time-series in the world.

Since the opening of its Laboratory in Plymouth in the late 19th century the MBA has undertaken long-term research that monitors natural changes in the physical marine environment and to record the abundance, distributions and population biology of diverse organisms, from phytoplankton to large fish.

The purpose of its long-term science monitoring is to provide an environmental baseline for understanding complex physical and ecological responses to natural local, regional and global environmental change. Without multi-decadal data sets of physical and biological measurements it is impossible to understand how large ecosystems like the western English Channel will respond to natural change.

The famous ‘E’ (for 'English') and ‘L’ (for 'Local') Stations for sustained scientific sampling were set up by the MBA in 1902 when the MBA undertook the English share of the international investigations on behalf of the UK following the formation of the International Council for the Exploration of the Seas (ICES). Scientific monitoring at the Stations L4, L5 and E1 including their surrounding sampling areas off Plymouth have been supported by the UK government periodically since 1902.

The MBA long-term science continues to the present day as the Western Channel Observatory (WCO) and as the MarCLIM rocky intertidal time series.

The WCO is a partnership between the Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) and the MBA. Station L4 (50 15.0’N, 4 13.0’W; 50 m depth) which is situated 13 km off Plymouth, is a monitoring area of particularly intensive (weekly) scientific observational activity.

The WCO is a recognised reference site nationally and internationally for monitoring natural fluctuations in the marine environment and biodiversity that is needed to assess changes in the natural climate system. The WCO long-term marine data provides results to UK departments and agencies, including NERC, the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and Statutory Nature Conservation Bodies (SNCB) such as Natural England. Data are used to inform policy deliverables under legislation such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive Part 2 Regulations. WCO data is also utilised within Europe as part of EMBOS (European Marine Biological Observatories).

Plankton, benthos and fish are sampled by our research vessel, MBA Sepia. The methods, gears and vessel speeds (during towing) have remained very similar during the past century of data collection which makes the time-series of great use in understanding how plankton and fish have changed naturally over a century time-scale, for example, in relation to climate-driven fluctuations in seawater temperature.

The MBA long-term measurements have resulted in seminal discoveries, including the work of Sir Frederick Russell FRS and Professor Alan Southward, who between the 1950s and 1970s were the first to appreciate and document important links between climate and biological changes in the sea, work that laid the foundations for many subsequent studies worldwide.

Recent MBA research focuses on understanding how diverse fish populations and communities in the western English channel ecosystem have responded to both fishing exploitation and warming sea temperatures.

The MBA time series has made seminal contributions to our understanding of how marine ecosystems respond to natural and anthropogenic changes. Important research papers arising from these long-term data include:

Chronological List of Publications Arising from MBA Long-Term Data (Download here)

Heape, W. (1888) Preliminary report upon the fauna and flora of Plymouth Sound. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. Old Series no.2, 194-.

Cunningham, J.T. (1889) Anchovies in the English Channel. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 1, 328-.

Calderwood, W.L. (1891) Experiments on the relative abundance of anchovies off the south coast of England. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 2, 268-.

Dickson, H.N. (1892) Physical investigations. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 2, 159-.

Dickson, H.N. (1892) Notes on meteorological observations at Plymouth. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 2, 171-.

Garstang, W. (1892) Notes on the marine invertebrate fauna of Plymouth for 1892. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 2, 333-.

Bles, E.J. (1892) Notes on the plankton observed at Plymouth during June, July, August and September, 1892. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 2, 340-.

Garstang, W. (1894) Faunistic notes at plymouth during 1893-94. III. Materials for a calendar of the floating fauna. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 3, 229-.

Cunningham, J.T. (1894) Growth and distribution of young food-fishes. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 3, 272-.

Allen, E.J. (1896) Notes on dredging and trawling work during the latter half of 1895. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 4, 164-.

Browne, E.T. (1896) On the changes in the pelagic fauna of Plymouth during September, 1893 and 1895. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 4, 168-.

Hodgson, T.V. (1896) Notes on the pelagic fauna at Plymouth, August-December, 1895. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 4, 173-.

Holt, E.W.L., Scott, S.D. (1897) A record of teleostean eggs and larvae observed at Plymouth in 1897. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 5, 156-.

Dunn, M. (1898) On the occurrence of large numbers of larval herrings at the surface. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 5, 184-.

Lankester, E.R., Herdman, W.A., Dickson, H.N., Garstang, W. (1899) Plankton and physical conditions of the English Channel during 1899. Reports to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, p. 444-446.

Allen, E.J. (1899) On the fauna and bottom-deposits near the thirty fathom line from the Eddystone Grounds to Start Point. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 5, 365-542.

Balfour Browne, F. (1903) Report on the eggs and larvae of teleostean fish observed at Plymouth in the spring of 1902. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 6, 598-.

Hefford, A.E. (1909) Notes on teleostean ova and larvae observed at Plymouth in spring and summer, 1909. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 9, 1-60.

Clark, R.S. (1914) General report on the larval and post-larval teleosteans in Plymouth waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 10, 327-394.

Orton, J.H. (1914) Preliminary account of a contribution to an evaluation of the sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 10, 312-.

Orton, J.H. (1917) An account of the researches on races of herrings carried out by the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth, 1914-15. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 11, 71-.

Lebour, M.V. (1917) The microplankton of Plymouth Sound from the region beyond the Breakwater. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 11, 133-.

Allen, E.J. (1917) Post-larval teleosteans collected near Plymouth during the summer of 1914. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 11, 207-250.

Allen, E.J. (1919) A contribution to the quantitative study of plankton. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 12, 1-.

Lebour, M.V. (1919) The young of the Gobiidae from the neighbourhood of Plymouth. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 12, 48-80.

Ford, E. (1920) The post-larval stages of Ammodytes species captured during the cruises of S.S. Oithona in Plymouth waters in the year 1919. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 12, 241-248.

Orton, J.H. (1921) Sea temperature, breeding and distribution in marine animals. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 12, 339-.

Lebour, M.V. (1921) The larval and post-larval stages of the pilchard, sprat and herring from Plymouth district. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 12, 427-467.

Atkins, W.R.G. (1921) The hydrogen ion concentration of seawater in its biological relations. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 12, 717-.

Atkins, W.R.G. (1921) The respirable organic matter of seawater. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 12, 772-.

Atkins, W.R.G. (1923) The hydrogen ion concentration of sewater in its relation to photosynthetic changes. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 13, 93-.

Ford, E. (1923) Animal communities of the level sea-bottom in the waters adjacent to Plymouth. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 13, 164-224.

Harvey, H.W. (1923) Hydrographic features of the water in the neighbourhood of Plymouth during the years 1921 and 1922. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 13, 225-.

Harvey, H.W. (1923) Note on an apparatus for determining the quantity of dissolved gases in sea water, and in fluids containing organic matter. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 13, 282-.

Atkins, W.R.G. (1924) On the vertical mixing of sea-water and its importance for the algal plankton. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 13, 319-.

Atkins, W.R.G. (1924) The hydrogen ion concentration of sea-water in its relation to photosynthetic changes. Part III. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 13, 437-.

Atkins, W.R.G. (1924) Solubility of phosphates in relation to hydrogen ion concentration. Nature 114, 275.

Hunt, O.D. (1925) The food of the bottom fauna of the Plymouth fishing grounds. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 13, 560-599.

Harvey, H.W. (1925) Water movement and sea temperature in the English Channel. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 13, 659-.

Russell, F.S. (1925) A releasing apparatus for horizontally towed plankton nets. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 13, 673-677.

Harvey, H.W. (1925) Evaporation and temperature changes in the English Channel. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 13, 678-.

Atkins, W.R.G. (1925) On the thermal stratification of sea-water and its importance for the algal plankton. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 13, 693-.

Atkins, W.R.G. (1925) Seasonal changes in the phosphate content of sea-water in relation to the growth of the algal plankton during 1923 and 1924. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 13, 700-.

Russell, F.S. (1925) The vertical distribution of marine macroplankton. An observation on diurnal changes. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 13, 769-809.

Russell, F.S. (1925) Depth recording with plankton nets. Nature 115, 603-604.

Atkins, W.R.G. (1925) The variation in depth of certain salts utilised in plankton growth in the sea. Nature 116, 784.

Harvey, H.W. (1926) Nitrate in the sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 14, 71-.

Atkins, W.R.G. (1926) Seasonal changes in the silica content of natural waters in relation to the phytoplankton. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 14, 89-.

Russell, F.S. (1926) The vertical distribution of marine macroplankton. II. The pelagic young of teleostean fishes in the daytime in the Plymouth area, with a note on the eggs of certain species. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 14, 101-159.

Poole, H.H., Atkins, W.R.G. (1926) On the penetration of light into sea-water. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 14, 177-.

Atkins, W.R.G. (1926) The phosphate content of sea-water in relation to growth of algal plankton. Part III. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 14, 447-.

Hunt, O.D. (1926) A new method for quantitative sampling of the sea bottom. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 14, 529-.

Atkins, W.R.G., Poole, H.H. (1926) The distribution of red algae in relation to illumination. Nature 98, 155.

Russell, F.S. (1926) The vertical distribution of marine macroplankton. III. Diurnal observations on the pelagic young of teleostean fishes in the Plymouth area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 14, 387-414.

Russell, F.S. (1926) The vertical distribution of marine macroplankton. IV. The apparent importance of light intensity as a controlling factor in the behaviour of certain species in the Plymouth area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 14, 415-440.

Russell, F.S. (1927) The vertical distribution of marine macroplankton. V. The distribution of animals caught in the ring-trawl in the daytime in the Plymouth area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 14, 557-608.

Carruthers, L.N. (1927) Investigations upon the water movements in the English Channel. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 14, 685-.

Russell, F.S. (1927) The vertical distribution of the plankton in the sea. Biological Reviews 2, 213-262.

Russell, F.S. (1928) The vertical distribution of marine macroplankton. VI. Further observations on diurnal changes. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 15, 81-99.

Russell, F.S. (1928) A net for catching plankton near the bottom. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 15, 105-108.

Atkins, W.R.G. (1928) Seasonal variations in the phosphate and silicate content of sea water during 1926 and 1927 in relation to the phytoplankton crop. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 15, 191-.

Ford, E. (1928) Herring investigations at Plymouth. III. The Plymouth winter fishery during the seasons 1924-25, 1925-26, and 1926-27. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 15, 279-304.

Ford, E. (1928) Herring investigations at Plymouth. IV. The growth of young herrings in the neighbourhood of Plymouth. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 15, 305-319.

Russell, F.S. (1928) The vertical distribution of marine macroplankton. VII. Observation on the behaviour of Calanus finmarchicus. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 15, 429-454.

Russell, F.S. (1928) The vertical distribution of marine macroplankton. VIII. Further observations on the diurnal behaviour of the pelgic young of teleostean fishes in the Plymouth area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 15, 829-849.

Ford, E. (1928) Herring investigations at Plymouth. I. Methods of collection and treatment of data. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 15, 509-.

Russell, F.S. (1930) Do oceanic plankton animals lose themselves? Nature 125, 17.

Russell, F.S. (1930) The seasonal abundance and distribution of the pelagic young of teleostean fishes caught in the ring-trawl in offshore waters in the Plymouth area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 16, 707-722.

Russell, F.S. (1930) Vitamin content of marine plankton. Nature 126, 472.

Russell, F.S. (1930) The vertical distribution of marine macroplankton. IX. The distribution of the pelagic young of teleostean fishes in the daytime in the Plymouth area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 16, 639-670.

Russell, F.S. (1931) Notes on Cyanea caught in the the ring-trawl in the Plymouth area during the years 1925-1930. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 17, 573-576.

Russell, F.S. (1931) The vertical distribution of marine macroplankton. X. Notes on the behaviour of Sagitta in the Plymouth area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 17, 391-414.

Russell, F.S. (1931) The vertical distribution of marine macroplankton. XI. Further observations on diurnal changes. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 17, 767-784.

Russell, F.S. (1932) On the biology of Sagitta. The breeding and growth of Sagitta elegans Verrill in the Plymouth area 1930-31. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 18, 131-146.

Russell, F.S. (1932) On the biology of Sagitta. II. The breeding and growth of Sagitta setosa Mueller in the Plymouth area 1930-31, with a comparison with that of S. elegans Verrill. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 18, 147-160.

Russell, F.S., Kemp, S.W. (1932) Pelagic animals off the south-west coast of the British Isles. Nature 130, 664.

Russell, F.S. (1933) On the occurrence of young stages of Caligidae on pelagic young fish in the Plymouth area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 18, 551-554.

Russell, F.S. (1933) On the biology of Sagitta. III. A further observation on the growth and breeding of Sagitta setosa in the Plymouth area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 18, 555-558.

Russell, F.S. (1933) On the biology of Sagitta. IV. Observations on the natural history of Sagitta elegans Verrill and  Sagitta setosa Mueller in the Plymouth area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 18, 559-574.

Ford, E. (1933) An account of the herring investigations conducted at Plymouth during the years from 1924 to 1933. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 19, 305-384.

Russell, F.S. (1933) The seaonal distribution of macroplankton as shown by catches in the 2-metre stramin ring-trawl in offshore waters off Plymouth. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 19, 73-81.

Russell, F.S. (1934) On the occurrence of the siphonophores Muggiaea atlantica Cunningham and Muggiaea kochi (Will) in the English Channel. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 19, 555-558.

Russell, F.S. (1935) The seasonal abundance and distribution of the pelagic young of teleostean fishes caught in the ring-trawl in offshore waters in the Plymouth area. Part II. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 20, 147-179.

Russell, F.S. (1935) The value of certain plankton animals as indicators of water movements in the English Channel and North Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 20, 309-332.

Harvey, H.W., Cooper, L.H.N., Lebour, M.V., Russell, F.S. (1935) Plankton production and its control. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 20, 407-442.

Russell, F.S. (1937) The seasonal abundance of the pelagic young of teleostean fishes in the Plymouth area. Part IV. The year 1936, with notes on the conditions as shown by the occurrence of plankton indicators. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 21, 679-686.

Kemp, S. (1938) Oceanography and the fluctuations in the abundance of marine animals. Reports of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, p. 85-101.

Russell, F.S. (1939) On the seasonal abundance of young fish. VI. The year 1938. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 23, 381-386.

Lebour, M.V. (1947) Notes on the inshore plankton of Plymouth. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 26, 527-547.

Corbin, P.G. (1947) The spawning of mackerel, Scomber scombrus L., and pilchard, Clupea pilchardus Walbaum, in the Celtic Sea in 1937-39, with observations on the plankton indicator species, Sagitta and Muggiaea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 27, 65-132.

Corbin, P.G. (1948) On the seasonal abundance of young fish. IX. The year 1947. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 27, 718-722.

Southward, A.J. and Crisp, D.J. (1952). Changes in the distribution of the intertidal barnacles in relation to the environment. Nature 170, 416-417.

Holme, N.A. (1953) The biomass of the bottom fauna in the English Channel off Plymouth. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 32, 1-49.

Rees, W.J., Lumby, J.R. (1954) The abundance of Octopus in the English Channel. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 33, 515-536.

Cooper, L.H.N. (1955) Deep water movements in the N. Atlantic as a link between climatic changes around Iceland and biological productivity of the English Channel and Celtic Sea. Journal of Marine Research 14, 347-362.

Southward, A.J. and Crisp, D.J. (1956). Fluctuations in the distribution and abundance of intertidal barnacles. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK  35, 211-229.

Marine Biological Association (1957) Plymouth Marine Fauna. Marine biological Association of the UK, Plymouth.

Crisp, D.J. and Southward, A.J. (1958). The distribution of intertidal organisms along the coasts of the English Channel. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 37, 157-208. 

Southward, A.J. (1958). Note on the temperature tolerances of some intertidal animals in relation to environmental temperatures and geographical distribution. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 37, 49-66.

Southward, A.J. (1960). On changes of sea temperature in the English Channel. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 39, 449-458.

Southward, A.J. (1963). The distribution of some plankton animals in the English Channel and approaches. III. Theories about long-term biological changes, including fish. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 43, 1-29.

Crisp, D.J. and Southward, A.J. (1964). Effects of the cold winter of 1962-63. South and South-west coasts. J. Anim. Ecol. 33, 179-183.

Southward, A.J. (1967). Recent changes in abundance of intertidal barnacles in South-West England: a possible effect of climatic deterioration. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 47, 81-95. 

Russell, F.S., Southward, A.J., Boalch, G.T. and Butler, E.I. (1971). Changes in biological conditions in the English Channel off Plymouth during the last half century. Nature 234, 468-470. 

Southward, A.J. and Butler, E.I. (1972). A note on further changes of sea temperature in the Plymouth area. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 52, 931-937.

Southward, A.J.  (1974). Long term changes in abundance of eggs of the Cornish pilchard (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum) off Plymouth. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 54, 641-649.   

Southward, A.J. (1974). Changes in the plankton community of the western English Channel. Nature 249, 180-181. 

Southward, A.J., Butler, E.I. and Pennycuick, L. (1975). Recent cyclic changes in climate and in abundance of marine life. Nature 253, 714-717.

Southward, A.J. and Southward, E.C. (1978). Recolonization of rocky shores in Cornwall after use of toxic dispersants to clean up the Torrey Canyon spill. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 35, 682-705.

Southward, A.J. (1980). The western English Channel - an inconstant ecosystem? Nature 285, 361-366.

Southward, A.J. (1981). Overfishing: is there a solution? Nature 291, 449-450. 

Southward, A.J. (1981). Life on an oily wave. Nature 294, 215-216.

Southward, A.J. (1984). Fluctuations in the ecosystem of the western Channel:  a summary of studies in progress. Oceanologica Acta, Special Volume, 187-189.

Southward, A.J.  (1984) Fluctuations in the "indicator" chaetognaths Sagitta elegans and Sagitta setosa in the western Channel. Oceanologica Acta 7, 229-239.

Southward, A.J., Boalch, G.T. and Maddock, L. (1988). Fluctuations in the herring and pilchard fisheries of Devon and Cornwall linked to change in climate since the 16th century. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 68, 423-445. 

Southward, A.J. (1991). Forty years of changes in species composition and population density of barnacles on a rocky shore near Plymouth. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 71, 495-513.

Southward, A.J. (1995). The importance of long time-series in understanding the variability of natural systems. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen 49, 329-333.

Southward, A.J., Hawkins, S.J. and Burrows, M.T. (1995). Seventy years' observations of changes in distribution and abundance of zooplankton and intertidal organisms in the western English Channel in relation to rising sea temperature. J. Therm. Biol. 20, 127-155.

Laane, R.W.P.M.;  Southward, A.J.;  Slinn, D.J.;  Allen, J., Groeneveld, G.;  Vries, A. De.  (1996) Changes and causes of variability in salinity and dissolved inorganic phosphate in the Irish Sea,  English Channel and Dutch coastal zone. ICES Journal of Marine Science 53, 933-944. 

Sims, D.W., Genner, M.J., Southward, A.J. and Hawkins, S.J. (2001). Timing of squid migration reflects North Atlantic climate variability. Proc. R. Soc. B 268, 2607-2611.

Hawkins, S.J.,  Gibbs, P.E.;  Pope, N.D.;  Burt, G.R.;  Chesman, B.S.;  Bray, S.;  Proud, S.V.;  Spence, S.K.;  Southward, A.J.; Langston, W.J.  (2002) Recovery of polluted ecosystems:  the case for long-term studies. Marine Environmental Research 54, 215-222.

Hawkins, S.J.;  Southward, A.J.;  Genner, M.  (2003) Detection of environmental change in a marine ecosystem- evidence from the western English Channel. Science of the Total Environment 310, 245-256.

Sims, D.W., Wearmouth, V.J., Genner, M.J., Southward, A.J. and Hawkins, S.J. (2004). Low-temperature-driven early spawning migration in a temperate marine fish. J. Anim. Ecol. 73, 333-341.

Hiscock, K.;  Southward, A.;  Tittley, I.;  Hawkins, S.  (2004) Effects of changing temperature on benthic marine life in Britain and Ireland. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 14, 333-362.

Kendall, M.A., Burrows, M.T.,  Southward, A.J., Hawkins, S.J. (2004) Predicting the effects of marine climate change on the invertebrate prey of the birds of rocky shores. Ibis 146, 40-47. 

Genner, M.J., Sims, D.W., Wearmouth, V.J., Southall, E.J., Southward, A.J., Henderson, P.A. and Hawkins, S.J. (2004). Regional climatic warming drives long-term community changes of British marine fish. Proc. R. Soc. B 271, 655-661. 

Southward, A.J., Langmead, O., Hardman-Mountford, N.J., Aiken, J., Boalch, G.T., Dando, P.R., Genner, M.J., Joint, I., Kendall, M., Halliday, N.C., Harris, R.P., Leaper, R., Mieszkowska, N., Pingree,R.D., Richardson, A.J., Sims, D.W., Smith, T., Walne, A.W. and Hawkins, S.J. (2004). Long-term oceanographic and ecological research in the western English Channel. Adv. Mar. Biol. 47, 1-104.

Coombs, S.H.;  Halliday, N.C.;  Southward, A.J.;  Hawkins, S.J. (2005) Distribution and abundance of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) eggs in the English Channel from Continuous Plankton Recorder sampling, 1958-1980. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 85, 1243-1247.

Mieszkowska, N., Leaper, R., Moore, P., Kendall, M.A., Burrows, M.T., Lear, D., Poloczanska, E., Hiscock, K., Moschella, P.S., Thompson, R.C., Herbert, R.J., Laffoley, D., Baxter, J., Southward, A.J. and Hawkins, S.J. (2005) Marine Biodiversity and Climate Change: Assessing and Predicting the Influence of Climatic Change Using Intertidal Rocky Shore Biota. Occasional Publications. Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 20: 53p.

Hardman-Mountford, N.J., Allen, J.I., Frost, M., Hawkins, S.J., Kendall, M., Mieszkowska, N., Richardson, K.A. & Somerfield, P. (2005) Diagnostic monitoring of a changing environment: An alternative UK perspective. Marine Pollution Bulletin 50: 1463-1471.

Simkanin,C., Power, A-M., Myers, A., McGrath, D., Southward, A.J., Mieszkowska, N., Leaper, R. & O'Riordan, R. (2005) Using historical data to detect temporal changes in the abundances of intertidal species on Irish shores. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 85: 1329-1340.

Mieszkowska, N.;  Kendall, M.A.;  Hawkins, S.J.;  Lleaper, R.; Williamson, P.;  Hardman-Mountford, N.J.;  Southward, A.J.  (2006) Changes in the range of some common rocky shore species in Britain – a response to climate change? Hydrobiologia 555, 241-251.

Sims, D.W.;  Southward, A.J.  (2006) Fisheries: Dwindling fish numbers already of concern in 1883. Nature 439 (7077), 660.

Helmuth, B., Mieszkowska, N., Moore, P. & Hawkins, S.J. (2006) Living on the edge of two changing worlds: forecasting the impacts of climate change on rocky intertidal ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology Systematics and Evolution 37: 373-404.

Coombs, S.H., Smyth, T.J., Conway, D.V.P., Halliday, N.C., Bernal, M., Stratoudakis, Y., Alvarez, P. (2006) Spawning season and temperature relationships for sardine (Sardina pilchardus) in the eastern North Atlantic. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 86, 1245-1252.

Stratoudakis, Y., Coombs, S.H., de Lanzos, A.L., Halliday, N.C., Costas, G., Caneco, B., Franco, C., Conway, D.V.P., Begona Santos, M., Silva A., Bernal, M. (2006) Sardine (Sardina pilchardus) spawning seasonality in European waters of the northeast Atlantic. Marine Biology 152, 201-212.

Araujo, J.N., Mackinson, S., Stanford, R.J., Sims, D.W., Southward, A.J., Hawkins, S.J., Ellis, J.R., Hart, P.J.B. (2006) Analysing the effects of food web interactions, climate change and fisheries on the western English Channel ecosystem. Marine Ecology Progress Series 309, 175-187.

Herbert, R.J.H.;  Southward, A.J.;  Sheader, M.;  Hawkins, S.J. (2007) Influence of recruitment and temperature on distribution of intertidal barnacles in the English Channel. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 87, 487-499.

Mieszkowska, N., Hawkins, S.J., Burrows, M.T. & Kendall, M.A. (2007) Long-term changes in the geographic distribution and population structures of some near-limit populations of Osilinus lineatus in Britain and Ireland. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 87: 5379/1-9.

Hawkins, S.J., Mieszkowska, N., Moschella, P.S., F. Pannaccuilli, M.T. Frost, M.T. Burrows, P. Moore, Poloczanska, E., Herbert, R.J., Sims, D.W., Genner, M.J., Thompson, R.C., Hiscock, K. & Southward, A.J. (2007) Conserving biodiversity of seas and coasts in a rapidly changing world. Proceedings of the Società Italiana di Biologia Marina.

Broitman, B., Mieszkowska, N., Helmuth, B.T. & Blanchette, C. (2008) Climate and recruitment of rocky shore intertidal invertebrates in the eastern north Atlantic. Ecology 89, Supplement 06: 81-90.

Burrows, M.T., Harvey, R., Robb, L., Poloczanska, E.S., Mieszkowska, N., Moore, P., Leaper, R., Hawkins, S.J. & Bennedetti-Cecci, L. (2008) Spatial scales of variance in distributions of intertidal species on complex coastlines: effects of region, dispersal mode and trophic level. Ecology 90(5): 1242-1254.

Whitman, J., Cusson, M., Archambault, P., Pershing, A. & Mieszkowska, N. (2008) The relation between productivity and species diversity in temperate-arctic marine systems. Ecology 89, Supplement 06: 66-80.

Hawkins, S.J., Moore, P.J., Burrows, M.T., Poloczanska, E., Mieszkowska, N., Herbert, R.J.H., Jenkins, S.R., Thompson, R.C., Genner, M.J. & Southward, A.J. (2008) Complex interactions in a rapidly changing world: responses of rocky shore communities to recent climate change. Climate Research 37: 123-133.

Mieszkowska, N., Genner, M.J., Hawkins, S.J., Sims, D.W. (2009) Effects of climate change and commercial fishing on Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Advances in Marine Biology, 56, 213-273.

Hawkins, S.J., Sugden, H.E., Moschella, P.S., Mieszkowska, N., Thompson, R.C., Burrows, M.T. (2009) The Seashore. In Maclean N, (ed) Silent Summer: The state of the wildlife in Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press.

Hawkins, S.J., Sugden, H.E., Mieszkowska, N., Moore, P.J., Poloczanska, E., Leaper, R., Herbert, R., Genner, M.J., Moschela, P.S., Thompson, R.C., Jenkins, S.R., Southward, A.J., Burrows, M.T. (2009) Consequences of climate-driven biodiversity changes for ecosystem functioning. Marine Ecology Progress Series 396, pp. 245-259.

Hawkins, S.J., Mieszkowska, N., Burrows, M.T., Sugden, H.E. and Baxter, J. (2009) Managing marine species in a rapidly changing world. In: Baxter JM & Cralbraith (eds) Species Management: Challenges and Solutions for the 21st Century. TSO Scotland, Edinburgh.

Coombs, S.H., Halliday, N.C., Conway, D.V.P., Smyth, T.J. (2010) Sardine (Sardina pilchardus) egg abundance at station L4, Western English Channel, 1988-2008. Journal of Plankton Research 32, 693-697.

Genner, M.J., Sims, D.W., Southward, A.J., Budd, G.C., Masterson, P., McHugh, M., Rendle, P., Southall, E.J., Wearmouth, V.J., Hawkins, S.J. (2010) Body size-dependent responses of a marine fish assemblage to climate change and fishing over a century-long scale. Global Change Biology 16, 517-527.

Genner, M.J., McHugh, M., Simpson, S.D., Hawkins, S.J., Sims, D.W. (2010) Temperature-driven phenological changes within a marine larval fish assemblage. Journal of Plankton Research 32, 699-708.

Vandepitte, L., Mieszkowska, N., et al. (2010) Data integration for European marine biodiversity research: creating a database on benthos and plankton to study large-scale patterns and long-term changes. Scientia Marina 44(1), 1-13.

Spencer, M., Birchenough, S.N.R., Mieszkowska, N., Robinson, L.A., Simpson, S.D., Burrows, M.T., Capasso, E., Cleall-Harding, P., Crummy, J., Duck, C., Eloire, D., Frost, M., Hall, A.J., Hawkins, S.J., Johns, D.G., Sims, D.W., Smyth, T.J., Frid, C.L.J. (2011) Temporal change in UK marine animal communities: trends or regime shifts? Marine Ecology 32, 10-24.

McHugh, M., Sims, D.W., Partridge, J.C., Genner, M.J. (2011) A century later: Long-term change of an inshore temperate marine fish assemblage. Journal of Sea Research 65, 187-194.

Simpson, S.D., Jennings, S., Johnson, M.P., Blanchard, J.L., Schön, J.-P., Sims, D.W., Genner, M.J. (2011) Continental shelf-wide response of a fish assemblage to rapid warming of the sea. Current Biology, 21, 1565-1570.

Mieszkowska, N. & Lundquist, C. (2011) Biogeographical patterns in limpet abundance and assemblage composition in New Zealand. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology 400(1), 155-166.

Russell, B.D., Harley, C.D.G., Wernberg, T., Mieszkowska, N., Widdicombe, S., Hall-Spencer, J.M. & Connell, S.D. (2011) Predicting ecosystem shifts requires new approaches that integrate the effects of climate change across entire systems.  Biology Letters 8(2), 164-166.

Spencer, M., Mieszkowska, N., Robinson, L.A., Simpson, S.D., Burrows, M.T., Birchenough, S.N.R., Capasso, E., Cleall-Harding, P., Crummy, J., Duck, C., Eloire, D., Frost, M., Hall, A.J., Hawkins, S.J., Johns, D.G., Sims, D.W., Smyth, T.J., and Frid, C.L.J. (2012) Region-wide changes in marine ecosystem dynamics: state-space models to distinguish trends from step changes. Global Change Biology 18, 1270-1281.

Heath, M.R., Neat, F., Pinnegar, J.K., Reid, D.G., Sims, D.W., Wright, P.J. (2012) Review of climate change impacts on marine fish and shellfish around the UK and Ireland. Aquatic Conservation, 22, 337-367.

Mieszkowska, N., Milligan, G., Burrows, M.T., Freckleton, R. and Spencer, M. (2013) Dynamic species distribution models from categorical survey data. Journal of Animal Ecology  DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12100.

Russell, B.D., Connell, S.D., Findlay, H.S., Tait, K., Widdicombe, S. & Mieszkowska, N. (2013) Ocean acidification and rising temperatures may increase biofilm primary productivity but decrease grazer consumption. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 368(1627), p.20120438.

Firth, L.B., Mieszkowska, N., Thompson, R.C. and Hawkins, S.J.(2013) Climate change and adaptational impacts in coastal systems: the case of sea defences. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts,15(9), pp.1665-1670.

Bréchon, A.L., Coombs, S.H., Sims, D.W., Griffiths, A.M. (2013) Development of a rapid genetic technique for the identification of clupeid larvae in the Western English Channel and investigation of mislabelling in processed fish products. ICES Journal of Marine Science 70, 399-407.

Hawkins, S. J., Vale, M., Firth L. B., Burrows, M. T., Mieszkowska, N. & Frost, M. (2013). Sustained Observation of Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystems. Oceanography 1, 1.

Edwards, M., Beaugrand, G., Helaouet, P., Alheit, J., Coombs, S. (2013) Marine Ecosystem Response to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. PLOS ONE 8(2), e57212. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057212

Hawkins, S.J., Vale, M., Firth, L., Burrows, M.T., Mieszkowska, N., Frost M. (2013). Sustained Observation of Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystems. Oceanography 1: e101. doi:10.4172/ocn.1000e101

Hawkins, S.J., Firth, L.B. McHugh, M., Poloczanska, E.S., Herbert, R.J.H., Burrows, M.T., Kendall, M.A., Moore, P.J., Thompson, R.C., Jenkins, S.R., Sims, D.W., Genner, M.J., Mieszkowska, N. (2013) Data rescue and re-use: recycling old information to address new policy concerns. Marine Policy 42, 91-98.

Mieszkowska, N., Milligan, G., Burrows, M.T., Freckleton, R., Spencer, M. (2013) Dynamic species distribution models from categorical survey data. Journal of Animal Ecology 82, 1215-1226. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12100.

Mieszkowska, N., Sugden, H. Firth, L. & Hawkins, S.J. (2014)  The role of sustained observations in tracking impacts of environmental change on marine biodiversity and ecosystems.  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2013.0339

Mieszkowska N., Burrows M., Pannacciulli, F. & Hawkins, S.J. (2014) Multidecadal signals within co-occuring intertidal barnacles Semibalanus balanoides and Chthamalus spp. linked to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Journal of Marine Systems 133: 70-76.

Querios, A., Fernandez, J.A., Faulwetter, S., Nunes, J., Rastrick, S.P.S., Mieszkowska, N., Aritoli, Y., Calosi, P., Arvanitidis, C., Findlay, H.S., Brange, M., Cheung, W.W.L., & Widdicombe, S. (2014) Scaling up Climate Change Research to the Ecosystem.  Global Change Biology, 21(1), 130-143.

Brodie, J., Williamson, C.J., Smale, D.A., Kamenos, N.A., Mieszkowska, N., Santos, R., Cunliffe, M., Steinke, M., Yesson, C., Anderson, K.M. and Asnaghi, V. (2014) The future of the northeast Atlantic benthic flora in a high CO2 world. Ecology and Evolution, 4(13), pp.2787-2798.

Alheit, J., Licandro, P., Coombs, S., Garcia, A., Giraldez, A., Garcia Santamaria, M.T., Slotte, A., Tsikliras, A.C. (2014) Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) modulates dynamics of small pelagic fishes and ecosystem regime shifts in the eastern North and Central Atlantic. Journal of Marine Systems 131, 21-35. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2013.11.002

Blackett, M., Licandro, P., Coombs, S.H., Lucas, C.H. (2014) Long-term variability of the siphonophores Muggiaea atlantica and M. kochi in the Western English Channel. Progress in Oceanography 128, 1-14.

Mieszkowska, N., Burrows, M.T., Pannacciulli, F.G., Hawkins, S.J. (2014) Multidecadal signals within co-occurring intertidal barnacles Semibalanus balanoides and Chthamalus spp. linked to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Journal of Marine Systems 133, 70-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2012.11.008

Gubili, C., Sims, D.W., Veríssimo, A., Dominici, P., Ellis, J., Grigoriou, P., Johnson, A., McHugh, M.J., Neat, F.C., Sarcenella, G., Serra-Pereira, B., Soldo, A., Genner, M.J., Griffiths, A.M. (2014) A tale of two seas: contrasting patterns of population structure in the small-spotted catshark across Europe. Royal Society Open Science 1, 140175.

McManus, M.C., Licandro, P., Coombs, S.H. (2015) Is the Russell Cycle a true cycle: Multidecadal zooplankton and climate trends in the western English Channel. ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsv126.

Rutterford, L.A, Simpson, S.D., Jennings, S., Johnson, M.P.,  Blanchard, J.L., Schön, J.-P., Sims, D.W., Tinker, J.,  Genner, M.J. (2015) Future fish distributions constrained by depth in warming seas. Nature Climate Change 5, 569-573. doi:10.1038/nclimate2607.

Smyth, T., Atkinson, A., Widdicombe, S., Frost, M., Allen, I., Fishwick, J., Queiros, A., Sims, D.W. (2015) The Western Channel Observatory. Progress in Oceanography, 137, 335-341.

Sims, D.W., Simpson, S.J. (2015) Fisheries: Better policing for fishy catch data. Nature 520, 623 (30 April 2015) doi:10.1038/520623e

Helmuth, B.T., Russell, B.D., Connnell, S., Dong, Y., Harley, C.D.G., Lima. F.P., Sarà, G., Williams, G.A. & Mieszkowska, N. (2015) Climate profiling: making biological sense of long term averages in a changing world. Climate Change Responses, 1(1), 6.

Firth, L.B., Mieszkowska, N., Grant, L.M., Bush, L.E., Davies, A.J., Frost, M.T., Moschella, P.S., Burrows, M.T., Cunningham, P.N., Dye, S.R. and Hawkins, S.J. (2015) Historical comparisons reveal multiple drivers of decadal change of an ecosystem engineer at the range edge. Ecology and evolution, 5(15), pp.3210-3222.

Mieszkowska, N. (2015)  Intertidal Indicators of climate and global change.  In: Climate Change. Ed. M. Letcher, Elsevier, Oxford, UK. 

Hawkins, S.J., Bohn, K., Sims, D.W., Ribeiro, P., Faria, J., Presa, P., Pita, A., Martins, G.M., Neto, A.I., Burrows, M.T., Genner, M.J., (2016) Fisheries stocks from an ecological perspective: Disentangling ecological connectivity from genetic interchange. Fisheries Research,  doi:101016/j.fishres.2016.01.015

Mieszkowska, N. & Sugden, H. (2016) Climate-Driven Range Shifts Within Benthic Habitats Across a Marine Biogeographic Transition Zone. Advances in Ecological Research 55: 325-369.

Firth, L.B., Knights, A.M., Thompson, R.C., Mieszkowska, N., Bridger, D., Evans, A., Moore, P.J., O'Connor, N.E., Sheehan, E.V. and Hawkins, S.J. (2016) Ocean sprawl: challenges and opportunities for biodiversity management in a changing world. Ocean sprawl: challenges and opportunities for biodiversity management in a changing world, (54), pp.189-262.

Helmuth, B., Choi, F., Matzelle, A., Torossian, J.L., Morello, S.L., Mislan, K.A.S., Yamane, L., Strickland, D., Szathmary, P.L., Gilman, S.E., Tockstein, A., Hilbish, T.J., Burrows, M.T., Power, A.M., Gosling, E., Mieszkowska, N., Harley, C.D.G., Nishizaki, M., Carrington, E., Menge, B., Petes, L.,Foley, M.M., Johnson, A., Pooe, M., Noble, M.M., Richmond, E., Robart, M., Robinson, J., Sapp, J., Sones, J., Broitman, B.R., Denny, M.W., Mach, K.J., Miller, L.P., O’Donnell, M., Ross, P., Hofmann, G.E., Zippay, M., Blanchette, C., Macfarlan, J.A., Carpizo-Ituarte, E., Ruttenberg, B., Pena Mejia, C.E., McQuiad, C.D., Lathlean, J., Monaco, C.J., Nicastro, K.R. & Zardi, G. (2016) Long-term, high frequency in situ measurements of intertidal mussel bed temperatures using biomimetic sensors. Nature Scientific Data, 3.

Mieszkowska, N. (2016) Intertidal Indicators of climate and global change. In: Climate Change. Second Edition. Ed. M. Letcher, pp281-296. Elsevier, Oxford, UK.

Araújo, R.M., Assis, J., Aguillar, R., Airoldi, L., Bárbara, I., Bartsch, I., Bekkby, T., Chrstie, H., Davoult, D., Derrien-Courtel. S., Fernandez, C., Fredriksen, S., Gevaert, F., Gundersen, H., Le Gal, A., Lévêque, L., Mieszkowska, N.,  Norderhaug, K.M., Oliveira, P., Puente, A., Rico, J.M.., Rinde, E., Schubert, H., Strain, E.M., Valero, M., Viard, F. & Sousa-Pinto, I. (2016)  Status, trends and drivers of kelp forests in Europe: an expert assessment. Biodiversity and Conservation DOI 10.1007/s10531-016-1141-7

Hawkins, S.J., Evans, A.J., Adams, L.C., Bray, S., Burrows, M.T., Firth, L.B., Genner, M.J., Leung, K.M.Y., Mieszkowska, N., Moore, P.J., Pack, K., H. Schuster, Sims, D.W., Whittington, M., Southward, E.C. (2017) Distinguishing globally-driven changes from regional- and local-scale impacts: the case for long-term and broad-scale studies of recovery from pollution. Marine Pollution Bulletin, in press.

Reports & contributions to policy

Hawkins, S.J., Mieskowska, N., Leaper, R., Frost, M., Moore, P. & Kendall, M.A. (2005)  Climate change: A role for network observations by European Marine Stations.  MARS Newsletter No.7, The European Marine Research Stations Network, Winter 2005: 4-5.

MCCIP (2006). Marine Climate Change Impacts Annual Report Card 2006. (Eds. Buckley, P.J., Dye, S.R. and Baxter, J.M.), Summary Report, MCCIP, Lowestoft, 8pp.

Mieszkowska, N. & Hawkins, S.J. (2007)  Marine Biodiversity and Climate Change in the British Isles.  Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership News.

Mieszkowska, N., Leaper, R., Hill, J., Southward, A.J. & Hawkins, S.J. (2007)  The effects of climate change on intertidal species, 44-45.  In,  Planet Guernsey, towards a sustainable future!

Mieszkowska, N., Sims, D. & Hawkins, S.J. (2007)  Fishing, climate change and north-east Atlantic fish stocks.  Report commissioned by the World Wildlife Fund.  Marine Update 59, pp4.

Langmead, O., Mieszkowska, N. Ellis, R. & Hiscock, K. (2008)  Rock and Biogenic Reef Habitats: Review of Indicators and Identification of Gaps. Report to the Joint Nature Conservation Committee F90-01-1095, pp192.

Frost, M., Mieszkowska, N., Greenaway, B., Monteith, D. & Parr, T. (2008) Living with environmental change: Integration of marine, freshwater and terrestrial long-term observations and research, pp13.

MCCIP. (2008). Marine Climate Change Impacts Annual Report Card 2007–2008. (Eds. Baxter JM, Buckley PJ and Wallace CJ). Summary Report, MCCIP, Lowestoft, 8pp.

Mieszkowska, N., Frost, M., Hawkridge, J. & Williamson, P. (2008) UK marine observatories & ecosystem-based time series: current status, science links and contribution to policy, pp12.

Mieszkowska, N., Frost, M. & Frid, C. (2009) MECN analysis of long-term datasets, Defra Report, pp10.

Mieszkowska, N., & Langmead, O. (2009) A Marine Assessment and Monitoring Framework for Application in UKMMAS and OSPAR for Rock and Biogenic Reef Habitats, pp 31.

Benjamins, S.J., Mieszkowska, N. et al. (2010) Charting Progress 2: UK Marine Habitats, pp209. In press.

Frost, M., Hawkridge, J. & Mieszkowska, N., Eds. (2010) Charting Progress 2: State of the UK Seas. Healthy & Biologically Diverse Seas Evidence Group Feeder Report. In press.

Austen, M., Malcon, S., Frost, M., Hattam, C., Mangi, S., Mieszkowska, N.. & Stentford, G. (2010) National Ecosystem Assessment, Chapter 10: Marine Habitats, pp 106.

Mieszkowska, N. (2010) Marine Climate Impacts Partnership Annual Report Card. Coastal Habitats & Ecology.

Huthnance, J. & Mieszkowska, N., Eds. (2010)  Charting Progress 2: State of the UK Seas.  OPEG Feeder Report.

Mieszkowska, N. (2011)  Marine biodiversity and climate change monitoring in the UK: a report to natural England on the MarClim Annual Survey 2010. Contract report from the Marine Biological Association of the UK to Natural England.  March 2012. Pp32.

Cook, E.J., Baker, G., Beveridge, C.M., Bishop, J.D.D., Brown, L., Clark, P.F., Huys, R., Jenkins, S., Maggs, C., McCollin, T., Mieszkowska, N., Mineur, F., Wood, C. (2011)  Marine Aliens II – Controlling Marine Invasive Species by Targeting Vectors of Dispersal. Final Report. SAMS Report No.274. pp. 34.

Mieszkowska, N. (2012)  Marine biodiversity and climate change monitoring in the UK: a report to natural England on the MarClim Annual Survey 2011. Contract report from the Marine Biological Association of the UK to Natural England.  March 2012. Pp34.

MCCIP (2012). Marine Climate Change Impacts on Fish, Fisheries and Aquaculture. (Eds. Frost M, Baxter JM, Buckley PJ, Cox M, Dye SR and Withers Harvey N) Summary Report, MCCIP, Lowestoft, 12pp.

Mieszkowska, N. (2013)  Marine biodiversity and climate change monitoring in the UK: a report to natural England on the MarClim Annual Survey 2012. Contract report from the Marine Biological Association of the UK to Natural England.  March 2012. Pp37.

Mieszkowska, N. & Sugden, H. (2013)Berwickshire & North Northumberland European Marine Site Condition Assessment.Ref: 25562.  Natural England Framework Contract report pp75.

Mieszkowska, N. & Sugden, H. (2013)Coquet to St Mary’s rMCZ littoral rock & soft sediment verification survey.Ref: 25649  Natural England Framework Contract report pp80.

Mieszkowska, N. & Sugden, H. (2013)Padstow Bay rMCZ littoral rock & soft sediment verification survey. Ref: 25016.  Natural England Framework Contract report, pp 71.

Sugden, H. & Mieszkowska, N. (2013)Skerries Bank & Surrounds rMCZ littoral rock & soft sediment verification survey. Ref25029.  Natural England Framework Contract report, pp. 72.

Mieszkowska, N.& Sugden, H. (2013)South Wight SAC: Rocky Intertidal and Sea Cave Condition Assessment. ITT 14 RP0729 / ITT 15 RP0728.  Natural England Framework Contract Report, pp44.

Mieszkowska, N. & Sugden, H. (2013)   Scalby Ness to Filey Brigg Rocky Shore Survey.  Omnicom ref: 22772.  Natural England Framework Contract Report, pp44.

MCCIP (2013) Marine Climate Change Impacts Report Card 2013. (Eds. Frost M, Baxter JM, Buckley PJ, Cox M, Dye SR and Withers Harvey N) Summary Report, MCCIP, Lowestoft, 12pp.

Burrows, M.T., Mieszkowska, N. & Hawkins, S.J. (2013) Development of GES rocky intertidal indicators for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.  JNCC.

de Mora S, Frost MT, Sanders R, Smyth T (2013) Final Report for the UK-IMON Implementation Study: A Workshop to explore adding value to existing key monitoring sites, especially for biological and biogeochemical measurements. Report to the Marine Science Coordination Committee, March, 2013. 

Mieszkowska, N., Firth, L. & Bentley, M. (2014) Impacts of Climate Change on Intertidal Habitats. MCCIP Science Review 2013.  P180-192.

Mieszkowska, N. (2014) MarClim Annual Welsh Intertidal Climate Monitoring Survey 2013.  Natural Resources Wales 050-MFG-08.  Pp37.

Frost, M., Seely, B., Frid, C., Hinchen, H., Somerfield, P. & Jenkins, S. (2014). MECN workshop 2014: long-term benthic monitoring and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Report to Defra. 23pp.

Mieszkowska, N. (2014) Marine Biodiversity and Climate Change Monitoring in the UK:  Final report to Natural England on the MarClim annual survey 2013.  Natural England pp29.

Burrows, M.T., Mieszkowska, N. & Hawkins, S.J. (2014) Marine Strategy Framework Directive Indicators for UK Rocky Shores Part 1: Defining and validating the indicators.

Mieszkowska, N. (2015)  MarClim Annual Welsh Intertidal Climate Monitoring Survey 2014.  Natural Resources Wales 050-MFG-08. 

Mieszkowska, N. (2015)  Marine Biodiversity and Climate Change Monitoring in the UK:  Final report to Natural England on the MarClim annual survey 2014.  Natural England.

Mieszkowska, N.,& Sugden, H. (2015)  Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast Rocky Shore Survey: Birdfood Availability Study. Pp 126. Report to Natural England. : Ecm 6703.

Sugden H., & Mieszkowska, N. (2015)  Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast (SAC) 2014 Intertidal Sea Cave Survey. Pp166. Report to Natural England and Scottish Natural Heritage.

Mieszkowska, N. & Sugden, H. (2016) Marine Biodiversity and Climate Change Monitoring in the UK:  Final report to Natural England on the MarClim annual survey 2015.  Natural England.

Mieszkowska, N. & Sugden, H. (2016) MarClim Annual Welsh Intertidal Climate Monitoring Survey 2015.  Natural Resources Wales 050-MFG-08.

The MBA has maintained time series on rocky intertidal invertebrates for many decades. The Marine Biodiversity and Climate Change Project, MarClim, was a consortium funded from 2001-2005 that restarted and maintained several UK rocky intertidal time-series dating back to the 1950s. This project has demonstrated some of the fastest biogeographic changes globally, far exceeding most documented in terrestrial systems.

The UK time-series continues at around 150 shores, and is supported by funding from the conservation agencies CCW, Natural England and by NERC Oceans 2025 under Theme 10. The geographic coverage has been expanded to include large sections of the European coastline. Resurveys of 1950s historical sites have been carried out in France and Portugal, along with additional sites in Norway. The time-series data is supporting ongoing collaborative modelling work with colleagues at University of South Carolina,  The Scottish Association for Marine Science, and CSIRO Australia.

 

Prof David Sims,

The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom,

The Laboratory, Citadel Hill,

Plymouth, Devon,UK.

PL1 2PB

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